The employment practices for which Japanese business gained fame—and later notoriety—are alive and well according to economist Ryo Kambayashi, who uses statistical analysis to challenge some widespread assumptions about the Japanese labor market. Introduction Once hailed for their flexibility and economic rationality, the Japanese Employment System in the post—World War II era came under attack in the s as a cause of economic stagnation.
Economic history of Japan The economic history of Japan is one of the most studied economies for its spectacular growth in three different periods.
First was the foundation of Edo in to whole inland economical developments, second was the Meiji Restoration in to be the first non-European power, third was after the defeat of World War II in when the island nation rose to become the world's second largest economy.
First contacts with Europe 16th century [ edit ] Main article: Nanban trade Japan was considered as a country rich in precious metals, mainly owing to Marco Polo 's accounts of gilded temples and palaces, but also due to the relative abundance of surface ores characteristic of a massive huge volcanic country, before large-scale deep-mining became possible in Industrial times.
It was densely populated and urbanized. Prominent European observers of the time seemed to agree that the Japanese "excel not only all the other Oriental peoples, they surpass the Europeans as well" Alessandro Valignano, "Historia del Principo y Progresso de la Compania de Jesus en las Indias Orientales.
Early European visitors were amazed by the quality of Japanese craftsmanship and metalsmithing. This stems from the fact that Japan itself is rather rich in natural resources found commonly in Europe, especially iron.
The cargo of the first Portuguese ships usually about 4 smaller-sized ships every year arriving in Japan almost entirely consisted of Chinese goods silk, porcelain. The Portuguese who were called Nanban, lit. Southern Barbarians therefore found the opportunity to act as intermediaries in Asian trade.
Edo period — [ edit ] Japanese export porcelain in the European shape of a barber's basin, with copulating cock, around The beginning of the Edo period coincides with the last decades of the Nanban trade periodduring which intense interaction with European powers, on the economic and religious plane, took place.
It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built her first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautistaa ton galleon -type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which then continued to Europe. Also during that period, the bakufu commissioned around Red Seal Shipsthree-masted and armed trade ships, for intra-Asian commerce.
Japanese adventurers, such as Yamada Nagamasawere active throughout Asia. In order to eradicate the influence of ChristianizationJapan entered in a period of isolation called sakokuduring which its economy enjoyed stability and mild progress.
For the rest of the 17th century most Japanese porcelain production was for export, mostly in Kyushu. The trade dwindled under renewed Chinese competition by the s, before resuming after the opening of Japan in the midth century. The construction trades flourished, along with banking facilities and merchant associations.
Increasingly, han authorities oversaw the rising agricultural production and the spread of rural handicrafts. By the mid-eighteenth century, Edo had a population of more than 1 million and Osaka and Kyoto each had more thaninhabitants. Many other castle towns grew as well.
Osaka and Kyoto became busy trading and handicraft production centers, while Edo was the center for the supply of food and essential urban consumer goods.
Rice was the base of the economy, as the daimyo collected the taxes from the peasants in the form of rice. The rice was sold at the fudasashi market in Edo. To raise money, the daimyo used forward contracts to sell rice that was not even harvested yet. These contracts were similar to modern futures trading.
During the period, Japan progressively studied Western sciences and techniques called rangakuliterally "Dutch studies" through the information and books received through the Dutch traders in Dejima.
The main areas that were studied included geography, medicine, natural sciences, astronomy, art, languages, physical sciences such as the study of electrical phenomena, and mechanical sciences as exemplified by the development of Japanese clockwatches, or wadokeiinspired from Western techniques.
Pre-war period — [ edit ] Since the midth century, after the Meiji Restorationthe country was opened up to Western commerce and influence and Japan has gone through two periods of economic development.
The first began in earnest in and extended through to World War II; the second began in and continued into the mids.
Economic developments of the prewar period began with the " Rich State and Strong Army Policy " by the Meiji government. During the Meiji period —leaders inaugurated a new Western-based education system for all young people, sent thousands of students to the United States and Europe, and hired more than 3, Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics, technology, and foreign languages in Japan Oyatoi gaikokujin.
The government also built railroads, improved road, and inaugurated a land reform program to prepare the country for further development. To promote industrializationthe government decided that, while it should help private business to allocate resources and to plan, the public sector was best equipped to stimulate economic growth.pick any one out of seven: Session 3.
Student presentation: What are the main features of the Japanese system of employment relations? How far do you agree with the view that employment relations in Japan has largely been unaffected by the pressures of globalisation?
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Annual median salary: $54, Lots of people whine about their jobs, but only a select few make their careers all about wine. One of the unique and well known features of the Japanese employment system is permanent employment for workers. Japanese corporations responses to recessionary periods provide an opportunity to sort out the myths from the realities of the Japanese permanent employment system.
One of the unique and well known features of the Japanese employment system is permanent employment for workers. Japanese corporations responses to recessionary periods provide an opportunity to sort out the myths from the realities of the Japanese permanent employment system.
I once watched a Japanese company work through a proposal for a joint venture received from a well-known American company, one with which the Japanese had done business for . Whether connecting to the Internet or to another computer within a LAN, every node on a network must have a unique ____ well known ports Ports ranging from 0 to ; assigned to processes that only the operating system or administrator of the system can access.