Hatch - University of Florida Newton, Sir IsaacEnglish natural philosopher, generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of science. In addition to his invention of the infinitesimal calculus and a new theory of light and color, Newton transformed the structure of physical science with his three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation.
Special thanks to the Microsoft Corporation for their contribution to our site. The following information came from Microsoft Encarta. Born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, where he attended school, he entered Cambridge University in ; he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College inand Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in He remained at the university, lecturing in most years, until Of these Cambridge years, in which Newton was at the height of his creative power, he singled out spent largely in Lincolnshire because of plague in Cambridge as "the prime of my age for invention".
During two to three years of intense mental effort he prepared Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy commonly known as the Principia, although this was not published until As a firm opponent of the attempt by King James II to make the universities into Catholic institutions, Newton was elected Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament ofand sat again in Meanwhile, in he had moved to London as Warden of the Royal Mint.
He became Master of the Mint inan office he retained to his death. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London inand in he became President, being annually re-elected for the rest of his life.
His major work, Opticks, appeared the next year; he was knighted in Cambridge in As Newtonian science became increasingly accepted on the Continent, and especially after a general peace was restored infollowing the War of the Spanish Succession, Newton became the most highly esteemed natural philosopher in Europe.
His last decades were passed in revising his major works, polishing his studies of ancient history, and defending himself against critics, as well as carrying out his official duties. Newton was modest, diffident, and a man of simple tastes.
He was angered by criticism or opposition, and harboured resentment; he was harsh towards enemies but generous to friends. In government, and at the Royal Society, he proved an able administrator. He never married and lived modestly, but was buried with great pomp in Westminster Abbey.
Newton has been regarded for almost years as the founding examplar of modern physical science, his achievements in experimental investigation being as innovative as those in mathematical research.
With equal, if not greater, energy and originality he also plunged into chemistry, the early history of Western civilization, and theology; among his special studies was an investigation of the form and dimensions, as described in the Bible, of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.
He investigated the refraction of light by a glass prism; developing over a few years a series of increasingly elaborate, refined, and exact experiments, Newton discovered measurable, mathematical patterns in the phenomenon of colour.
He found white light to be a mixture of infinitely varied coloured rays manifest in the rainbow and the spectrumeach ray definable by the angle through which it is refracted on entering or leaving a given transparent medium.
He correlated this notion with his study of the interference colours of thin films for example, of oil on water, or soap bubblesusing a simple technique of extreme acuity to measure the thickness of such films. He held that light consisted of streams of minute particles. From his experiments he could infer the magnitudes of the transparent "corpuscles" forming the surfaces of bodies, which, according to their dimensions, so interacted with white light as to reflect, selectively, the different observed colours of those surfaces.
The roots of these unconventional ideas were with Newton by about ; when first expressed tersely and partially in public in andthey provoked hostile criticism, mainly because colours were thought to be modified forms of homogeneous white light.
Doubts, and Newton's rejoinders, were printed in the learned journals. The publication of Opticks, largely written bywas delayed by Newton until the critics were dead. The book was still imperfect: Nevertheless, Opticks established itself, from aboutas a model of the interweaving of theory with quantitative experimentation.
He may have learnt geometry at school, though he always spoke of himself as self-taught; certainly he advanced through studying the writings of his compatriots William Oughtred and John Wallis, and of Descartes and the Dutch school.
Newton made contributions to all branches of mathematics then studied, but is especially famous for his solutions to the contemporary problems in analytical geometry of drawing tangents to curves differentiation and defining areas bounded by curves integration.
Not only did Newton discover that these problems were inverse to each other, but he discovered general methods of resolving problems of curvature, embraced in his "method of fluxions" and "inverse method of fluxions", respectively equivalent to Leibniz's later differential and integral calculus.
Newton used the term "fluxion" from Latin meaning "flow" because he imagined a quantity "flowing" from one magnitude to another.
Fluxions were expressed algebraically, as Leibniz's differentials were, but Newton made extensive use also especially in the Principia of analogous geometrical arguments.
Late in life, Newton expressed regret for the algebraic style of recent mathematical progress, preferring the geometrical method of the Classical Greeks, which he regarded as clearer and more rigorous.
Newton's work on pure mathematics was virtually hidden from all but his correspondents untilwhen he published, with Opticks, a tract on the quadrature of curves integration and another on the classification of the cubic curves.
His Cambridge lectures, delivered from about towere published in The Calculus Priority Dispute Newton had the essence of the methods of fluxions by The first to become known, privately, to other mathematicians, inwas his method of integration by infinite series. In Paris in Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz independently evolved the first ideas of his differential calculus, outlined to Newton in Newton had already described some of his mathematical discoveries to Leibniz, not including his method of fluxions.Isaac Newton’s scientific achievements include his three laws of motion — inertia, acceleration, and action and reaction the law of universal gravitation, the reflecting telescope and the theory of calculus.
Newton published important written works, the most famous of which is “Principia. Isaac Newton’s scientific achievements include his three laws of motion — inertia, acceleration, and action and reaction the law of universal gravitation, the reflecting telescope and the theory of calculus.
Newton, Sir Isaac (), English natural philosopher, generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of regardbouddhiste.com addition to his invention of the infinitesimal calculus and a new theory of light and color, Newton transformed the structure of physical science with his three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation.
#10 Sir Isaac Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. Apart from his contributions to science, Isaac Newton was appointed Warden in , and Master in , of the Royal Mint; served as a member of the Parliament of England in – and – ; and was elected President of the Royal Society in Isaac Newton was one of the most important figures in the field of science.
|Isaac Newton | Biography, Facts, Discoveries, Laws, & Inventions | regardbouddhiste.com||Newton was born three months after the death of his father, a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton.|
|Isaac Newton - Wikipedia||WhatsApp Primarily active as a scientist in the second half of the seventeenth century, Sir Isaac Newton — was an English physicist and mathematician, who more than anyone else, led the world towards scientific revolution. His book Principia is regarded by many as the most important scientific work.|
|Reset Password:||Descartes had also made light central to the mechanical philosophy of nature; the reality of light, he argued, consists of motion transmitted through a material medium. Newton fully accepted the mechanical nature of light, although he chose the atomistic alternative and held that light consists of material corpuscles in motion.|
|Newton's Scientific Achievements - Sir Isaac Newton ()||He discovered that white light is composed of colours that can be considered primary.|
|Achievements of Isaac Newton||Check new design of our homepage! We owe our understanding of the universe to his scientific discoveries.|
We owe our understanding of the universe to his scientific discoveries. This ScienceStruck article tells you about the accomplishments of Isaac Newton. Newton, Sir Isaac (), mathematician and physicist, one of the foremost scientific intellects of all time. Born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, where he attended school, he entered Cambridge University in ; he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in , and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in