Facebook Twitter In the brutal, hard-fought wars of the Middle Eastern crusades, few figures stand out as brightly as Saladin. Rallying Muslim forces, he drove back the crusaders, faced one of their greatest leaders in the form of King Richard of England, and despite setbacks clung onto the most important city in the region — Jerusalem. The Rise of Saladin A Kurdish warrior who gained his early experience fighting in Egypt, Saladin was an outsider in the Turkish-dominated Muslim military, but his leadership skills let him rise to great power. In he was made a vizier, and in he overthrew the last Fatimid caliph, restoring Sunni Islam in the name of the Abbasids.
Eager to expand his power, Nur ad-Din set his sights on the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt. InNur ad-Din sent his most trusted general, Shirkuhon a military expedition to Saladin and the crusades Nile. Accompanying the general was his young nephew, Saladin.
In response, Amalric sent an army into Egypt and attacked Shirkuh's troops at Bilbeis in Nur ad-Din sent the scalps of the Christian defenders to Egypt for Shirkuh to proudly display at Bilbeis for Amalric's soldiers to see.
This action prompted both Amalric and Shirkuh to lead their armies out of Egypt. Shawar again opted to call upon Amalric to defend his territory. The combined Egyptian-Christian forces pursued Shirkuh until he retreated to Alexandria.
Amalric then breached his alliance with Shawar by turning his forces on Egypt and besieging the city of Bilbeis. Shawar pleaded with his former enemy, Nur ad-Din, to save him from Amalric's treachery.
Lacking the resources to maintain a prolonged siege of Cairo against the combined forces of Nur ad-Din and Shawar, Amalric retreated. This new alliance gave Nur ad-Din rule over virtually all of Syria and Egypt. Saladin's conquests[ edit ] Shawar was executed for his alliances with the Christian forces, and Shirkuh succeeded him as vizier of Egypt.
InShirkuh died unexpectedly after only weeks of rule. Shirkuh's successor was his nephew, Salah ad-Din Yusuf, commonly known as Saladin.
Nur ad-Din died inleaving the new empire to his year-old son, As-Salih. It was decided that the only man competent enough to uphold the jihad against the Franks was Saladin, who became sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Amalric also died inleaving Jerusalem to his year-old son, Baldwin IV. Raynald later forged an agreement with Saladin to allow free trade between Muslim and Christian territories. He also raided caravans throughout the region and expanded his piracy to the Red Sea by sending galleys to raid ships, and to assault the city of Mecca itself.
These acts enraged the Muslim world, giving Raynald a reputation as the most hated man in the Middle East. Baldwin IV died inand the kingdom was left to his nephew Baldwin Vwhom he had crowned as co-king in Raymond III of Tripoli again served as regent.
The following year, Baldwin V died before his ninth birthday, and his mother Princess Sybillasister of Baldwin IV, crowned herself queen and her husband, Guy of Lusignanking.
Raynald again raided a rich caravan and had its travelers thrown in prison. Saladin demanded that the prisoners and their cargo be released.
The newly crowned King Guy appealed to Raynald to give in to Saladin's demands, but Raynald refused to follow the king's orders. Siege of the Kingdom of Jerusalem[ edit ] Full article: Battle of Hattin ; Siege of Jerusalem Saladin's troops, French manuscript, This final act of outrage by Raynald gave Saladin the opportunity he needed to take the offensive against the kingdom, and in he laid siege to the city of Tiberias.
Raymond advised patience, but King Guy, acting on advice from Raynald, marched his army to the Horns of Hattin outside of Tiberias. The Frankish army, thirsty and demoralized, was destroyed in the ensuing battle, and the city would not be held again by Christians until In the wake of his victory at the Battle of Hattin in July , Saladin conducted a successful campaign in the Christian territories of the Holy Land.
Among those Christian nobles who managed to escape from Hattin was Balian of Ibelin who first fled to Tyre. The Third Crusade (–) was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in Saladin: Saladin, Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.
In wars against the Christian Crusaders, he achieved great success with the capture of Jerusalem in , ending its .
The Third Crusade had failed to attain its main objective, the retaking of Jerusalem, but in every other way it was a great success. Most of Saladin’s victories in the wake of Ḥaṭṭin were wiped away.
Saladin (/–) was a Muslim military and political leader who as sultan (or leader) led Islamic forces during the Crusades.
Saladin’s greatest triumph over the European Crusaders came at the Battle of Hattin in , which paved the way for Islamic re-conquest of .
Saladin allowed many to leave without a ransom consideration, and most Christian foot soldiers were sold into slavery. With Jerusalem secure, Saladin summoned Jews to resettle in the city, and Jews formed the large settlement in Ashkelon responded to his request.