Page vii Preface Criminology and Social Policy begins with the premise that what appear to be problems for crime policy are actually problems for social policy and aims to think through the challenges, dilemmas, and obstacles that arise in pursuit of this premise. The title refers to social policy, meaning an area of government intervention directed at improving social welfare. In nearly all occurrences, the term social policy is used in this sense.
It is con- fined to research on addiction in its original meaning as putative enslavement to a substance or activity rather than merely deviant or disapproved activity more broadly.
As will be seen, though, there is a ubiquitous and theoretically interesting tendency even among those who contend to be writing about addiction as such to slip into modes of analysis that effectively substitute questions regarding the social approval of an activity for questions concerning whether it is voluntary or involuntary.
Hence, one purpose of this article is to explore whether, and how, this slippage might be avoided. Introduction In sociology, addiction has been approached from several distinct theoretical vantage Criminological theories dealing with the departed. Regrettably, the term has often been used interchangeably with other terms including deviant drug use,1 drug misuse, and drug abuse.
Such imprecision results in a confusion of questions concerning the social approval of various sorts of drug use with questions concerning whether this use is voluntary. Much of the history of social policy concerning psychoactive drugs has been predicated, at least ostensibly, on the claim that these substances possess unusual powers over people and must be regulated to protect cit- izens from their own personal proclivities to succumb to addictive use.
We are also poorly equipped to evaluate social research that either endorses or rejects this idea. If it is to have any meaning at all, the term addiction cannot be considered synonymous with terms denoting voluntary drug use. As will be seen, though, there is a ubiquitous and theoretically interesting tendency even among those who contend to be writing about addiction as such to slip into modes of analysis that effectively substitute questions regard- ing the social approval of drug use for questions concerning whether it is voluntary or involuntary.
Hence, one purpose of this article is to explore whether, and how, this slip- page might be avoided. The article is divided into five sections.
The following section outlines and evaluates critically the seminal contributions of Alfred Lindesmith to the sociology of addiction. Next I address the work of major functionalists who have sought to theorize addiction. In the further section, I consider the efforts of theorists who have sought to subsume addiction into the rational choice model of social action more gener- ally.
Finally, I discuss the important contributions to the sociology of addiction made by social constructionists inspired by the work of people like Michel Foucault and Bruno Latour.
I conclude with a brief synopsis of my own position. More than 70 years after its original publication, his theory remains the classic sociological theory of addiction Akers ; McAuliffe and Gordon ; Stephens ; Weinberg a, Lindesmith noted that users who acquired heroin on the street were often vulnerable to addictive patterns of use, but those who had been administered opiates in hospital settings were not so vulnerable.
He explained this by suggesting that whereas both hospital and street users experience physiological withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of use, only street users become consciously aware of the fact that the source of their distress lies in their heroin deprivation.
Lindesmith argued that by using drugs specifically to alleviate withdrawal, mere drug users were transformed into genuine drug addicts. Most fundamentally, his theory relies on an outdated division of human perception into: Moreover, Lindesmith also presumes that physiological withdrawal distress is a necessary pre-requisite for the onset of addictive behavior.
His work reflects the wisdom of an era wherein it seemed sensible to speak of distinctions between hard drugs defined by the fact that they produce physiological withdrawal symptoms and soft drugs defined by the fact that they do not do so. But the era has now passed when people could speak confidently of a dis- tinction between drugs that produce genuine, or physical, addictions and drugs that pro- duce only a more nebulous psychological addiction.
Crack cocaine is widely recognized as extre- mely addictive by clinical professionals and non-professionals alike but, oddly enough, it produces no gross physiological withdrawal symptoms Gawin Theories that trade on the distinction between genuine physical addiction and a less severe psychological addiction cannot remain consis- tent in their explanations of relapse.
This theory is plainly residual in the sense that it pastes a new subconscious mechanism onto the original physiological withdrawal-plus-knowledge- of-withdrawal theorem.
Moreover, it is not consistently supported by empirical data on opiate addiction cf. Robinsand affords no explanation of relapse into the use of substances like nicotine or crack, which do not produce gross physiological withdrawal symptoms in the first place.
Given the analogous tendency of former crack and nicotine addicts to say nothing of behavioral addictions like eating, gambling, and sex to relapse, we are well advised to look beyond the generalization of withdrawal distress to ade- quately understand this process.Start studying Criminology Exam 3.
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Search. - Is one of the most controversial criminological theories in recent history Criminology Exam 2. 20 terms. Criminology Exam 3 pt 2. 47 terms. Criminology Exam 4. Features. Quizlet . residents in urban communities is foundational to criminological and sociological theories of community organization.
From social disorgani-zation theory (Shaw and McKay /) to the more recent This renewed focus departed somewhat from the traditional institutions to provide assistance in dealing with particular problems and. Sociology Compass 5/4 (): –, /jx Sociological Perspectives on Addiction Darin Weinberg* University of Cambridge Abstract This article provides a critical survey of sociological research on addiction.
Oct 10, · Theories of Criminology and The Departed Martin Scorcese’s film, The Departed, gives a great depiction of contrasting theories of the origins of crime, and how they may be applied to each character. Each of the four major theories, Choice Theory, Trait Theory, Social Structure Theory, and Social Process Theory can be seen to be accurate at one or more points in the film, but the film.
Criminological Theory Summaries Theory Main Points Theorists/Researchers Classical Crime occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs—when people pursue self-interest in .
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