Whether it be making the audience aware of the moviemaking process through film language, or purely making a film about filmmaking, self-reflexive cinema motivates intellectual interaction with the film. That said, there has been numerous films produced throughout the history of cinema that are considered self-reflexive. However, only a handful of them truly captured the essence and capacity of its devices for revolutionary or critical purposes as well as the films that follow. However, they have a distinct pattern and meaning since every shot is either preceded or followed by a secondary shot explaining and demonstrating the procedure involved in capturing the primary image.
Reflexivity first entered into anthropological discourse in the late s in response to several problematics that had emerged in the previous decade, but its use in the humanities and in sociology has a longer history.
In the words of Barbara Myerhoff and Jay Ruby, two of its advocates, reflexivity "describes the capacity of any system of signification to turn back on itself, to make itself its own object by referring to itself" p. In the fields of literature, theater, and film, the term is used to describe formal devices by which cultural artifacts call attention to their own production.
In the early twentieth century, reflexivity also known as self-reflexivity, metaliterature, or metatheater was particularly associated with experimental attempts to undermine the realist conventions of mainstream productions by inserting films or film production within films, having literary characters address their readers, and so on.
While it is still associated primarily with experimental works, reflexivity is also found in mainstream cinema and theater. The concept of reflexivity has a longer history in sociology than in anthropology. As a sociological term, it first appears in the work of Talcott Parsons where it refers to the capacity of social actors in modern societies to be conscious and able to give accounts of their actions.
This usage was further developed by Anthony Giddens, who argues that one of the main characteristics of late modernity is a heightened importance of reflexivity in this sense, both at the individual and the societal level.
In late modernity, he argues, most aspects of social activity are subject to constant revision in the light of new information or knowledge sociology itself is a major source of such reflexivity at the level of the society.
Individual social actors likewise must constantly revise their identities in light of the changing social categories at hand. A second meaning of the term in sociology is traceable to the work of Harold Garfinkel who used the term to mean the process by which social order is created through ad hoc instances of conversational practice.
A third sense of the term is in the context of "reflexive sociology. In his work, reflexivity is understood as a strategic agenda, that of utilizing the tools of the discipline in order to demystify sociology as a power saturated social practice. Reflexivity in Anthropology Although reflexivity appears somewhat later in anthropology than it does in sociology, its impact has been far greater.
It became a central theoretical and practical concern during the mids in response to a distinctive conjunction of events both within and outside of the discipline, which problematized the production of ethnographic texts.
Like sociological reflexivity, reflexivity in anthropology encompasses several distinct, identifiable but related styles. The first of these, chronologically speaking, is associated with Victor Turner and his students, and focuses on the study of reflexive moments in social life.
Turner was interested in the ways in which social action was accomplished through the manipulation of symbols. Of greater influence within the discipline, however, have been styles of reflexivity, broadly associated postmodernism that reflect upon the disciplinary practices of anthropology.
The so-called reflexive turn in anthropology came as the outcome of three distinct disciplinary crises, beginning in the early s.
The second crisis was produced by the intersection of the feminist movement with anthropology. The feminist intervention in particular led to an emphasis on positionality—that is, a reflexivity that is enacted through the explicit acknowledgment and theoreticization of the "situatedness and partiality of all claims to knowledge" Marcus, p.
This has been particularly important in the work of "halfie" anthropologists—anthropologists working in communities in which they have ambivalent claims of membership or at least commonality. In this spirit, a strain of ethnography more directly concerned with experiments in rhetorical styles emerged by the end of the s.
The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, which focused attention on rhetorical strategies by which ethnographies produce their effects and called for a re-thinking of, and reflexive experimentation with writing strategies such as dialogue, pastiche, and memoir.
Reactions to the reflexive turn varied, even among its advocates. Marcus and Clifford, for example, were critical of the lack of formal experimentation in writings by feminist anthropologists.
Feminist anthropologists, such as Ruth Behar and Deborah Gordon, responded, accusing them of insufficient reflexivity regarding their positionality.
Others in the discipline, such as Clifford Geertz and Nancy Scheper-Hughes, expressed the following concern: By the s, however, most elements of the reflexive critique had been incorporated into the mainstream of U.
Other works incorporated reflexive concerns or strategies to broader ends, using them to interrogate the relationship between writing and theory or to problematize the role of ethnography in the construction of ethnographic subjects. Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter.
Behar, Ruth, and Deborah Gordon, eds. University of California Press, Clifford, James, and George E. The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Portrait of a Moroccan.
University of Chicago Press, Johns Hopkins Press, Anthropology as Cultural Critique. The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford University Press, University of Michigan Press, Ethnography through Thick and Thin.
Princeton University Press, Reflexivity first entered into anthropological discourse in the late s in response to several problematics that had emerged in the previous decade, but its use in the humanities and in sociology has a longer history. (or film production) within films, having literary characters address their readers, and so on.
summary discussion. 20 Ethnographic and Documentary Films Psychological Anthropologists Should Be Teaching. as instructors can use the film to spur class discussion about the rhetorical effects of voiceover and narration in relation to the underlying The film is grounded in a self-conscious attempt at reflexivity and a critical deconstruction of the method.
By combining Archer's () morphogenic approach and her discussion of the internal conversation with Donati's relational sociology generally and his discussion of relational reflexivity more specifically, Weaver is able to examine how desistance is co-produced by individuals "in relation" through the process of reflexivity and, in doing so.
Browse our collection of the greatest films from around the world, available on Blu-ray, DVD, and streaming. It is very easy to liken a reflexivity film to a “making of” film, and I am still not exactly clear on how they are different, in a technical sense.
There is not anything bad about “making of” films, but I do not think that they rise to the caliber of types of impactful films that Elemental Productions aims to make. Whether it be making the audience aware of the moviemaking process through film language, or purely making a film about filmmaking, self-reflexive cinema motivates intellectual interaction with the film.